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Biology Publications


  • Taylor, P. 2017. Inclusive fitness in finite populations—effects of heterogeneity and synergy. Evolution, 71: 508–525. [PDF]


  • Taylor, P. 2016. Hamilton's Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions. Journal of Theoretical Biology 397:151-157. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2016.02.034 [PDF]


  • D. B. Krupp, Peter D. Taylor, 2015. Social evolution in the shadow of asymmetrical relatedness. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 4596-4603. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.0142 [PDF]


  • Tarnita, C.E. & Taylor, P. 2014. Measure of relative fitness of social behaviors in finite structured populations. American Naturalist 184: 477-488 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Maciejewski, W. 2014. Hamilton's inclusive fitness in finite structured populations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 369: 20130360 doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0360 [PDF]
  • Neal, A. T. and Taylor, P. 2014. Local mate competition and transmission bottlenecks: A new model for understanding malaria parasite and other sex ratios. Journal of Theoretical Biology 363:381-389 doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.08.037i [PDF]


  • Krupp, D.B. and Taylor, P.D. 2013. Enhanced kin recognition through population estimation. American Naturalists 181: 707-714 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P. 2013. Inclusive and personal fitness in synergistic evolutionary games on graphs. Journal of Theoretical Bioloy 325: 76-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2013.02.002 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. and Maciejewski, W. 2012. An inclusive fitness analysis of synergistic interactions in structured populations. Proceedings of the Royal society B 279: 4596-4603 doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.1408 [PDF]
  • Kong, D. and Taylor, P.D. 2012. Skunk Redux. Math. Mag. 85: 267-276 doi:10.4169/math.mag.85.4.268 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. 2011. Group Theory in Homogeneous Populations, in "The Mathematics of Darwin's Legacy" Chalub and Rodrigues, Eds, pp 105-118, in the series Mathematics and Biosciences in Interaction, Birkhauser (Basel)[PDF]


  • Brown, S. and Taylor, P.D. 2010. Joint evolution of multiple social traits: A kin selection analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277:415-422 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and 102 others. 2011. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality (Reply to M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 2010. Nature 466, 1057-1062). Nature 471: E1-E4 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 2010. Birth-death symmetry in the evolution of a social trait. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 2569-2578 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D., Lillicrap, T. and Cownden, D. 2010. Inclusive fitness analysis on mathematical groups. Evolution 65-3: 849-859. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01162.x [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D., West, S.A. and Wild, G. 2010. Inclusive fitness in evolutionary modeling. Banff International Researh Station [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Grafen, A. 2010. Relatedness with different interaction configurations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 262: 391-397 [PDF]


  • Antal, T., Ohtsuki, H., Wakeley, J., Taylor, P.D., and Nowak, M.A. 2009. Evolution of Cooperation by Phenotypic Similarity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106: 8597-8600 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Grafen A. 2009. Relatedness with different interaction configurations. Theoretical Biology 262: 391-397 [PDF]


  • Alizon, S. and Taylor P.D. 2008. Empty sites can promote altruistic behavior. Evolution 62: 1335-1344 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D., Day, T., and Wild, G. 2007. Evolution of cooperation in a finite homogeneous graph. Nature 447: 469-472 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D., Day, T., and Wild, G. 2007. From inclusive fitness to fixation probability in homogeneous structured populations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 249: 101-110 [PDF]


  • Wild, G., Greenwood-Lee, J., and Taylor, P. D. 2006. Sex allocation and dispersal in a heterogeneous two-patch environment. Theoretical Population Biology 70: 225-235 doi:10.1016j.tpb.2005.10.002. [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D., Wild, G., and Gardner, A. 2006. Direct fitness or inclusive fitness: How shall we model kin selection? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20: 296-304 [PDF]
  • Gardner, A., Hardy, I.C.W., Taylor, P.D. and West, S.A. 2006. Spiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. American Naturalist 169: 519-533 [PDF]


  • Wild, G. and P.D., and Taylor. 2005. A kin-selection approach to the resolution of sex-ratio conflict between mates. Journal of Theoretical Biology 236: 126-136 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D., Day, T., Nagy, D., Andre, J-B., Wild, G., and Gardner, A. 2005. The evolutionary consequences of plasticity in host-parasite interactions. Theoretical Population Biology 69: 323-331 [PDF]
  • Pen, I. and Taylor, P.D. 2005. Modeling information exchange in worker-queen conflict over sex allocation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 272: 2403-2408 [PDF]
  • Pen, I. and Taylor, P.D. 2005. Research Highlights. Nature 437: 454-455 [PDF]


  • Wild, G. and Taylor, P.D. 2004. Kin-selection models for the coevolution of the sex ratio and sex-specific dispersal. Evolutionary Ecology Research 6: 481-502 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Day, T. 2004. Cooperate with thy neighbour? Nature 428: 611-612 [PDF]
  • Wild, G. and Taylor, P.D. 2004. Fitness and evolutionary stability in game theoretic models of finite populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 271: 2345-2349 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P. and Day, T. 2003. Stability in negotiation games and the emergence of cooperation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B doi: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2636 [PDF]
  • Day, T. and Taylor, P.D. 2003. Evolutionary dynamics and stability in discrete and continuous games, Evolutionary Ecology Research 5: 605-613 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. and Day, T. 2002. Inclusive fitness. 3000 word article in the Oxford University Press Encyclopedia of Evolution [PDF]


  • Lee, J.M. and Taylor P.D. 2001. The evolution of dispersal in spatially varying environments. Evolutionary Ecology Research 3: 649-665 [PDF]
  • Lee, J.M., Taylor P.D., and Haig, D. 2001. The inclusive fitness dynamics of genomic imprinting. Selection 2: 101-116 [PDF]
  • Irwin, A.J. and Taylor, P.D. 2001. Evolution of altruism in a stepping-stone population with overlapping generations. Theoretical Population Biology 60: 315-325 [PDF]


  • Irwin, A. and Taylor, P.D. 2000. Heterozygous advantage and the evolution of female choice. Evolutionary Ecology Research 2: 119-128 [PDF]
  • Day, T. and Taylor, P.D. 2000. A generalization of Pontryagin's maximum principle for dynamic evolutionary games among relatives. Theoretical Population Biology 57: 339-356 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Irwin, A. 2000. Overlapping generations can promote altruistic behaviour. Evolution 54: 1135-1141 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D., Irwin A., and Day, T. 2000. Inclusive fitness in finite deme-structured and stepping-stone populations. Selection 1: 83-93 [PDF]
  • Irwin, A. and Taylor, P.D. 2000. The evolution of dispersal in a stepping stone population with overlapping generations. Theoretical Population Biology 58: 321-328 [PDF]


  • Day, T. and Taylor, P.D. 1998. Chromosomal drive and the evolution of meiotic non-disjunction and trisomy in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 95: 2361-2365 [PDF]
  • Day, T. and Taylor, P.D. 1998. The evolution of temporal patterns of selfishness, altruism and group cohesion. American Naturalist 152: 102-113 [PDF]
  • Day, T. and Taylor, P.D. 1998. Unifying genetic and game theoretic models of kin selection on continuous traits. Journal of Theoretical Biology 194: 391-407 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. and Day, T. 1997. Evolutionary stability under the replicator and the gradient dynamics. Evolutionary Ecology 11: 579-590 [PDF]
  • Day, T. and Taylor, P.D. 1997. Bertalanffy's growth equation should not be used to model age and size at maturity. American Naturalist 149: 381-393 [PDF]
  • Greeff, J.M. and Taylor P.D. 1997. Effects of inbreeding depression on relatedness and optimal sex ratios. Evolutionary Ecology 11: 245-247 [PDF]
  • Day, T. and Taylor, P.D. 1997. Hamilton's Rule meets the Hamiltonian-kin selection on dynamic characters. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 264: 639-644 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. 1996. Inclusive Fitness arguments in genetic models of behaviour. Journal of Mathematical Biology 34: 654-674 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Frank, S. 1996. How to make a kin selection model. Journal of Theoretical Biology 180: 27-37 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1996. The selection differential in quantitative genetics and ESS models. Evolution 50: 2106-2110 [PDF]
  • Day, T. and Taylor, P.D. 1996. Evolutionarily stable versus fitness maximizing life histories under frequency-dependent selection. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 263: 333-338 [PDF]


  • Denver, K. and Taylor, P.D. 1995. An inclusive fitness model for the sex ratio in a partially sibmating population with inbreeding cost. Evolutionary Ecology 9: 318-327 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1995. Sex ratio selection with asymmetric exchange of pollen between finite demes: Fisher's result does not hold. Evolution 49: 1119-1124 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. and Crespi, B.J. 1994. ESS sex ratios when correlates of relatedness can be assessed. American Naturalist 143: 297-316 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Getz, W.M. 1994. An inclusive fitness model for the evolutionary advantage of sibmating. Evolutionary Ecology 8: 61-69 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1994. Sex ratio in a stepping-stone population with sex-specific dispersal. Theoretical Population Biology 45: 203-218 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. 1993. Female-biased sex ratios under LMC: an experimental confirmation. Evolutionary Ecology 7: 306-308 [PDF]


  • Whittingham, L.A., Taylor, P.D., and Robertson, R.J. 1992. Confidence of paternity and male parental care. American Naturalist 139: 1115-1125 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1992. Altruism in viscous populations--an inclusive fitness model. Evolutionary Ecology 6: 352-356 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1992. Inclusive fitness in a homogeneous environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 249: 299-302 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. 1991. Optimal life histories with age-dependent trade off curves. Journal of Theoretical Biology 148: 33-48 [PDF]


  • Crespi, B.J. and Taylor, P.D. 1990. Dispersal rates under variable patch density. American Naturalist 135: 48-62 [PDF]
  • Cooke, F., Taylor, P.D., Francis, C.M., and Rockwell, R.F. 1990. Directional selection and clutch size in birds. American Naturalist 136: 261-267 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1990. Allele frequency change in a class-structured population. American Naturalist 135: 95-106 [PDF]
  • Geramita, J. and Taylor, P.D. 1990. Matrix theory in population modelling. Quarterly Review of Biology 65: 53-56 [PDF]


  • Taylor P.D., 1989. Local stability in a seed provisioning model. Journal of Theoretical Biology 136: 1-12 [PDF]
  • Taylor P.D., 1989. Evolutionary stability in one-parameter models under weak selection. Theoretical Population Biology 36: 125-43 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. and Wilson, D.S. 1988. A mathematical model for altruism in haystacks. Evolution 42: 193-196 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1988. An inclusive fitness model of dispersal of offspring. Journal of Theoretical Biology 130: 363-378 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1988. Inclusive fitness models with two sexes. Theoretical Population Biology 34: 145-168 [PDF]


  • Sargent, R.C., Taylor, P.D. and Gross, M.R. 1987. Parental care and the evolution of egg size in fishes. American Naturalist 129: 32-46 [PDF]
  • Griffin, M.P. and Taylor, P.D. 1987. Science and scientists: where are we going? Quarterly Review of Biology 62: 52-55 [PDF]
  • Williams, G.C. and Taylor, P.D. 1987. Demographic consequences of natural selection. Evolution of Longevity in Animals, edited by A.D. Woodhead and K.H. Thompson, Plenum Publishing Corp. 235-245 [PDF]


  • MacKinnon, S., Taylor, P.D., Meijer, H. and Akl, S.G. 1985. An Optimal algorithm for assigning cryptographic keys to control access in a hierarchy, IEEE Transactions on Computers, C-34 797-802 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1985. A general mathematical model for sex allocation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 112: 799-818 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1985. Sex ratio equilibrium under partial sib mating. Heredity 54: 179-185 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. 1984. Evolutionarily stable reproductive allocations in heterostylous plants. Evolution 38: 408-416 [PDF]
  • Werren, J.H. and Taylor, P.D. 1984. The effect of population recruitment upon sex ratio selection. American Naturalist. 124: 143-148 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Williams, G.C. 1984. Demographic parameters at evolutionary equilibrium. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 62: 2264-2271 [PDF]


  • Colgan, P. and Taylor, P.D. 1981. Sex ratio in autoparasitic Hymenoptera. American Naturalist 117: 564-566 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1981. Intra-sex and inter-sex sibling interactions as sex ratio determinants. Nature 291 5810: 64-66 [PDF]
  • Taylor P.D. and Williams, G.C. 1981. Commentary on the modelling of sexual selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 56: 305-13 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1981. Sex ratio compensation in ant populations. Evolution 35: 1250-51 [PDF]
  • Bulmer, M.G. and Taylor, P.D. 1981. Worker-queen conflict and sex ratio theory in social Hymenoptera. Heredity 47: 197-207 [PDF]


  • Bulmer, M.G. and Taylor, P.D. 1980. Dispersal and the sex ratio. Nature 284, 5755: 448-449 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Sauer, A. 1980. The selective advantage of sex ratio homeostasis. American Naturalist 116: 305-310 [PDF]
  • Bulmer, M.G. and Taylor, P.D. 1980. Sex ratio under the haystack model. Journal of Theoretical Biology 86: 83-89 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. and Bulmer, M.G. 1980. Local mate competition and the sex ratio. Journal of Theoretical Biology 86: 409-419 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. 1979. Evolutionarily stable strategies with two types of player. Journal of Applied Probability 16: 76-83 [PDF]
  • Taylor, P.D. 1979. An analytical model for a short-term advantage for sex. Journal of Theoretical Biology 81: 407-421 [PDF]


  • Taylor, P.D. and Jonker, L. 1978. Game dynamics and evolutionarily stable strategies. Mathematical Biosciences 40: 145-156 [PDF]
  • Krebs, J.R., Kacelnik, A., and Taylor, P.D. 1978. Test of optimal sampling by foraging great tits. Nature 275, 5675: 27-31 [PDF]


  • Norman, R.F., Taylor, P.D. and Robertson, R.J. 1977. Stable equilibrium strategies and penalty functions in a game of attrition. Journal of Theoretical Biology 65: 571-578 [PDF]
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